Pattern matching

Constructor patterns

Cons-cells, structures, vectors, lists and such can be matched with constructor patterns.

(loop for i from 1 to 30
      do (format t "~5<~a~;~>"
                 (match (cons (mod i 3)
                              (mod i 5))
                   ((cons 0 0) "Fizzbuzz")
                   ((cons 0 _) "Fizz")
                   ((cons _ 0) "Buzz")
                   (_ i)))
      when (zerop (mod i 5)) do (terpri))
; 1    2    Fizz 4    Buzz 
; Fizz 7    8    Fizz Buzz 
; 11   Fizz 13   14   Fizzbuzz
; 16   17   Fizz 19   Buzz 
; Fizz 22   23   Fizz Buzz 
; 26   Fizz 28   29   Fizzbuzz

defun-match

Using pattern matching one can intertwine function definition and pattern matching, similar to SML.

(trivia:defun-match fib (index)
  "Return the corresponding term for INDEX."
  (0 1)
  (1 1)
  (index (+ (fib (1- index)) (fib (- index 2)))))

(fib 5)
;; => 8

Dispatching Clack requests

Because a clack request is represented as a plist, we can use pattern matching as the entry point to the clack app as a way to route request to their appropriate controllers

(defvar *app*
  (lambda (env)
    (match env
      ((plist :request-method :get
              :request-uri uri)
       (match uri
         ("/" (top-level))
         ((ppcre "/tag/(\\w+)/$" name) (tag-page name)))))))

Note: To start *app* we pass it to clackup. ej (clack:clackup *app*)

Guard-pattern

Guard patterns can be used to check that a value satisfies an arbitrary test-form.

(dotimes (i 5)
  (format t "~d: ~a~%"
          i (match i
              ((guard x (oddp x)) "Odd!")
              (_ "Even!"))))
; 0: Even!
; 1: Odd!
; 2: Even!
; 3: Odd!
; 4: Even!

Overview

The two main libraries providing pattern matching in Common Lisp are Optima and Trivia. Both provide a similar matching API and syntax. However trivia provides a unified interface to extend matching, defpattern.



2016-07-23
2016-07-23
common-lisp Pedia
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